Batticaloa district is located in the east of Sri Lanka in the Eastern Province. It has an area of 2,854 square kilometers.
It stands on a long, sandy spit of land pointing northward and separated from the mainland by a large brackish lagoon which extends southward for many kilometers.
Rice and coconuts are the two staples of the district, and steamers trading round the island call regularly at the port. The lagoon is famous for its “singing fish,” supposed to be shell-fish which give forth musical notes. The district has a remnant of Veddahs or wild men of the wood. The average annual rainfall is 551 in.; the average temperature 80.4° F.
The city is located on land between the lagoon and the Indian Ocean.Batticaloa district is flourished with three lagoons, such Batticaloa lagoon, Valaichchenai Lagoon and Vakari Lagoon.
The lagoon is fed by a number of small rivers. It is linked to the sea by a two narrow channels, one at Batticaloa and the other at Periyakallar. During the dry season these channels are blocked by sand bars.
The lagoon is surrounded by a densely populated region used for cultivating rice, coconut and other crops. The land is used for prawn fishing, shrimp farming and rice cultivation.
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The lagoon has extensive mangrove swamps and some sea grass beds. The lagoon attracts a wide variety of water birds.